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. 2016 Apr 21;9(8):873-9.
doi: 10.1002/cssc.201501513. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

A Thermally-Regenerative Ammonia-Based Flow Battery for Electrical Energy Recovery from Waste Heat

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A Thermally-Regenerative Ammonia-Based Flow Battery for Electrical Energy Recovery from Waste Heat

Xiuping Zhu et al. ChemSusChem. .

Abstract

Large amounts of low-grade waste heat (temperatures <130 °C) are released during many industrial, geothermal, and solar-based processes. Using thermally-regenerative ammonia solutions, low-grade thermal energy can be converted to electricity in battery systems. To improve reactor efficiency, a compact, ammonia-based flow battery (AFB) was developed and tested at different solution concentrations, flow rates, cell pairs, and circuit connections. The AFB achieved a maximum power density of 45 W m(-2) (15 kW m(-3) ) and an energy density of 1260 Wh manolyte (-3) , with a thermal energy efficiency of 0.7 % (5 % relative to the Carnot efficiency). The power and energy densities of the AFB were greater than those previously reported for thermoelectrochemical and salinity-gradient technologies, and the voltage or current could be increased using stacked cells. These results demonstrated that an ammonia-based flow battery is a promising technology to convert low-grade thermal energy to electricity.

Keywords: ammonia; energy conversion; flow battery; sustainable chemistry; thermal energy.

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